Renal dysfunction after orthotopic heart transplantation: incidence, natural history, and risk factors
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TitleRenal dysfunction after orthotopic heart transplantation: incidence, natural history, and risk factors
Garrido IP, Crespo-Leiro MG, Paniagua MJ, Muñiz J, Rodríguez JA, Regueiro M, et al. Renal dysfunction after orthotopic heart transplantation: incidence, natural history, and risk factors. TransplantProc. 2003;35(5):2014-2016
[Abstract] Background. Renal dysfunction is a common complication after orthotopic heart transplantation (HT). The importance of factors other than exposure to immunosuppressive drugs is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and natural history of renal dysfunction following heart transplantation, and to evaluate a number of variables as risk factors for this condition. Methods. We examined the creatinine levels at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months in 262 consecutive heart transplant patients who survived at least 1 year. The potential risk factors included pre- and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and drugs used to control arterial hypertension. Results. 17.2% of patients showed mild renal dysfunction (creatinine 1.5-2.5 mg/dL) and 1.9% moderate dysfunction (creatinine >2.5 mg/dL) at 1 month; 29.8% showed mild and 1.1% moderate dysfunction at 6 months; 33.2% showed mild and 1.9% moderate dysfunction at 1 year; 40% showed mild, 0.9% moderate and 0.4% severe dysfunction (requiring dialysis or renal transplantation) at 2 years; and 43.6% showed mild, 1.7% moderate and 0.9% severe dysfunction at 5 years. None of the conditions analyzed as possible risk factors showed a significant association with renal dysfunction except the use of diuretics. Conclusion. The incidence of renal dysfunction after orthotopic heart transplantation was 33.6% within the first year after transplant and 44% within the first five years, although more than 95% of cases were mild. The incidence increased with time after transplantation. Renal dysfunction seems likely to be multifactorial in origin, but no individual risk factors were identified.
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